At present, infertility is a key-issue. When applicable, in vitro fertilization (IVF) has become the standard approach to treat this condition but a thorough investigation and, whenever possible, the individual diagnosis of the underlying causes of infertility are required. For many female causes, indeed, efficient medical therapies are available to achieve a fast solution of the problem. This review is based on the relevant literature indexed in PubMed and SCOPUS and is focused on the most recent clinical literature on the treatment of women (and couples) affected from infertility. The reduction in IVF treatment burden and risks are now considered pivotal to set ‘patient-friendly’ therapies and represent crucial issues for both patients and physicians. To this end, the researchers are now focusing their attention on old drugs with new indications and new compounds with more appropriate functions, to improve the compliance of the women and reduce the burden of infertility, a condition that is becoming an important issue in the modern world, also for the Public Health System.