Genetic causes of preimplantation embryo developmental failure
Mariagrazia Paonessa, Andrea Borini, Giovanni CoticchioMolecular Reproduction & Development, First published: 12 April 2021 https://doi.org/10.1002/mrd.23471Volume88, Issue5, May 2021, Pages 338-348Abstract
Embryo development requires orchestrated events, finely regulated at the molecular and cellular level by mechanisms which are progressively emerging from animal studies. With progress in genetic technologies—such as genome editing and single-cell RNA analysis—we can now assess embryo gene expression with increased precision and gain new insights into complex processes until recently difficult to explore. Multiple genes and regulative pathways have been identified for each developmental stage. We have learned that embryos with undisturbed and timely gene expression have higher chances of successful development. For example, selected genes are highly expressed during the first stages, being involved in cell adhesion, cell cycle, and regulation of transcription; other genes are instead crucial for lineage specification and therefore expressed at later stages. Due to ethical constraints, studies on human embryos remain scarce, mainly descriptive, and unable to provide functional evidence. This highlights the importance of animal studies as basic knowledge to test and appraise in a clinical context. In this review, we report on preimplantation development with a focus on genes whose impairment leads to developmental arrest. Preconceptional genetic screening could identify loss-of-function mutations of these genes; thereby, novel biomarkers of embryo quality could be adopted to improve diagnosis and treatment of infertility.
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